2020考研英语翻译常用方法总结

时间:2021-09-14 16:17:39 浏览量:

  同位语译法

  1. There is a principle that all citizens should meet minimal qualifications of age and literacy.

  有一个这样的原则,那就是所有公民应当满足最低的年龄要求和识字能力要求。

  2. Part of the fame of Allens book is its contention that Circumstances do not make a person, they reveal him.

  爱伦的书之所以出名,部分原因是因为它辩论的观点,即: 环境并未造就人,而是揭示了人的本性。

  3. The word amateur does carry a connotation that the person concerned is not fully integrated into the scientific community and, in particular, may not fully share its values.

  业余爱好者一词的确带有这样一种内涵,那就是,没有完全整合进科学界的人不会分享其价值观。

  4. Online culture thinks highly of the notion that the information flowing onto the screen comes there by specific request.

  网上文化推崇这样一个概念,即在你提出具体的要求之后,信息才会出现在你屏幕上。

  5. The idea that the journalist must understand the law more profoundly than an ordinary citizen rests on an understanding of the established conventions and special responsibilities of the news media.

  新闻工作者对于法律的理解应当比普通公民更加深刻,这个观点建立在对新闻媒体既定规范和特殊社会责任的理解的基础之上。

  6. Being interested in the relationship of language and thought, Whorf developed the idea that the structure of language determines the structure of habitual thought.

  沃尔夫对语言与思维的关系很感兴趣,因此他逐渐形成了这样的观点:一个社会中,语言的结构决定习惯思维的结构。

  7. The common belief of some linguistics that each language is a perfect vehicle for the thoughts of the nation speaking it is in some ways the exact counterpart of the conviction of the Manchester school of economics that supply and demand will regulate everything for the rest.

  一些语言学家的共同见解是,每一种语言都是使用该语言的民族用以表达思想的完美载体。这一观点在某些方面与曼彻斯特经济学派的观点,即供给与需求会将一切调节至尽善尽美,有异曲同工之处。

  8. There is a principle that all citizens should meet minimal qualifications of age and literacy.

  有一个原则是:所有公民应当具备最低的年龄要求和识字能力要求。

  名词性从句译法

  (1) what引导

  1. When I think of a sad memory, I do what everyone does.

  当我回忆起悲伤事件时,我所做的和所有人一样。

  2. What makes this figure different from the last, he says, is that there are still buyers in the market.

  他说道,使得这一数字与先前不同的原因在于,市场中仍然存在买家。

  3. Knowing what youre good at and doing even more of it creates excellence.

  了解了你擅长的领域,并多加练习,就能变得优秀。

  4. We unconsciously associate fast food with speed and impatience and carry those impulses into whatever else were doing.

  我们无意识地将快餐和速度及不耐烦联系起来,并把这种冲动带入到日常所做的每一件事中去。

  5. One difficulty is that almost all of what is called behavioral science continues to trace behavior to states of mind, feelings, traits of character, human nature, and so on.

  一个困难在于,几乎所有成为行为科学的学科都继续到心态、感觉、性格特征、人性等因素中去探究行为。

  6. To filter out what is unique from what is shared might enable us to understand how complex cultural behavior arose.

  如果能将独特性与普遍性相分离,我们就能够理解文化行为产生的复杂性。

  (2) how引导

  1. The question is how we can get the loan.

  问题是我们获得贷款的方式。

  2. The Greeks assumed that the structure of language had some connection with the process of thought, which took root in Europe long before people realized how diverse languages could be.

  希腊人认为本语言结构与思维过程之间存在着某种联系,这种观点早在人们意识到语言的千差万别之前就已经在欧洲扎下了根。

  3. A Google search can leak between 0.2 and 7.0 grams of CO2, depending on how many attempts are needed to get the right answers.

  在谷歌上进行一次搜索便会产生0.2到7.0克的二氧化碳,具体数值取决于人们得到正确答案所需的查询次数。

  (3) 其它

  1. Anyway, the townsfolk cant understand why the Royal Shakespeare Company needs a subsidy.

  无论如何,镇民们还是不能够理解皇家莎士比亚剧团需要补助的原因。

  2. They caught up to where they should have stayed.

  他们终于来到他们本该呆的地方。

  3. He told them who he was and what he had done in the past.

  他向他们讲述他的身份和经历。

  4. When the first draft should be finished and how it should be ameliorated are just two of a great number of difficulties that the fledging newspaper reporter encounters.

  完成初稿的时间以及修改方式,是这个初出茅庐的新闻记者面临的众多问题中的两个。

  5. This is why the more neutral substance is now used by many physicians and psychologists.

  这就是很多医师和心理学家现在更多使用中性物质的原因。

  6. Depending on whom you are addressing, the problems will be different.

  根据演讲对象的不同,问题应该也有所不同。

  状语译法

  1. Hearing the news, they immediately set off for Shanghai.

  听到这个消息,他们立即出发到上海去了。

  2. Seen from the pagoda, the south foot of the Purple Mountain is a sea of trees.

  从这个塔上远眺,紫金山南麓是树的海洋。

  3. Printed white, the house looks bigger.

  漆成白色后,这房子像是更大了。

  4. Having written an important letter, I listened to the music for a while.

  写完一封重要的信之后,我听了一会儿音乐。

  5. Arguing from the view that humans are different from animals in every relevant respect, extremists of this kind think that animals lie outside the area of moral choice.

  持极端观点的人认为,人与动物在各相关方面都不相同,所以对待动物无须考虑道德问题。

  6.Writing in the last year of his life, Darwin expressed the opinion that in two or three respects his mind had changed during the preceding twenty or thirty years.

  达尔文在生命的最后一年里表达到,在最后二三十年里,他的思想在两三个方面发生了改变。

  定语从句译法

  (1) that型

  1. A further concern is that the use of electronic means of payment leaves an electronic trail that contains a large amount of personal data on buying habits.

  更加令人担忧的是,使用电子支付方式会留下电子痕迹,这些痕迹包含大量个人购买习惯的数据。

  2. These are the kind of workers that countries like Britain, Canada and Australia try to attract by using immigration rules that privilege college graduates.

  这些劳动者是诸如英国、加拿大以及澳大利亚等国试图通过移民规则来吸引的人才,这些国家的移民规则给大学毕业生以优待。

  3. It tends to ignore, and thus eventually to eliminate, many elements in the land community that lack commercial value, but that are essential to its healthy functioning.

  这一体系容易忽视并最终消灭很多缺乏商业价值的物种,然而这些物种对于整个生物群落的健康运行是至关重要的。

  4. This will be particularly true since energy pinch will make it difficult to continue agriculture in the high-energy American fashion that makes it possible to combine few farmers with high yields.

  这种困境将是确定无疑的,因为能源的匮乏,高能量消耗这种美国耕作方式很难在农业中继续下去,而这种耕作方式使投入少数农民就可获得高产成为可能。

  5. It leads the discussion to extremes at the outset: it invited you to think that animals should be treated either with consideration humans extend to other humans, or with no consideration at all.

  这在一开始就将问题引向极端,它让人们认为应该这样对待动物:要么象对待人类自身那样去关怀,要么完全冷漠无情。

  (2) which型

  1. Thus, the anthropological concept of culture, like the concept of set in mathematics, is an abstract concept which makes possible immense amounts of concrete research and understanding.

  因此,人类学中的文化就象数学中的集一样,是一个抽象概念,这种抽象概念使大量的具体研究和认识成为可能。

  2. A bill by Democratic Senator Robert Byrd of West Virginia, which would offer financial incentives for private industry, is a promising start.

  西弗吉尼亚州的民主党参议院罗伯特比尔德提议向私营产业提供财政刺激,这一提案是一个有希望的开端。

  3. Furthermore, humans have the ability to modify the environment in which they live,

  而且,人类还有能力改变自己的生存环境,

  4. Now since the assessment of intelligence is a comparative matter, we must be sure that the scale with which we are comparing our subjects provides a valid or fair comparison.

  现在,既然对智力的评估是比较性的,那么,在对我们的对象进行比较时,所采用的尺度就应当是有效的或公平的。

  (3) who, whom, whose型

  1. I shall define him as an individual who has elected as his primary duty and pleasure in life the activity of thinking in Socratic way about moral problems.

  我将其定义为这样一个人:他以苏格拉底的方式来思考道德问题,并将此当作人生的主要责任和乐趣。

  2. On another level, many in the medical community acknowledge that the assisted suicide debate has been fueled in part by the despair of patients for whom modern medicine has prolonged the physical agony of dying.

  在另一层面上,许多医学界人士承认,关于辅助自杀的争论的升温的部分原因在于病人的绝望情绪,对这些病人来说,现代医学事实上延长了临终前身体的痛苦。

  3. It was a really bad move because thats not my passion, says Ning, whose dilemma about the job translated, predictable, into a lack of sales.

  宁说:因为这个工作不是我的兴趣所在,所以这的确是糟糕的一步。结果可想而知,他的这一矛盾心理导致他的销售业绩不佳。

  4. Realistic optimists are these who make the best of things that happen.

  现实的乐观主义者是那些把发生的事情做到最好的人。

  5. Firms who want to keep their outside directors through tough times may have to create incentives.

  加入公司想在困难时期留住独立董事,就必须提供经济激励。

  (4) where型

  1. Most of the prospective graduate students wish to enter a satisfactory university where they can not only find exciting life but also improve themselves on academics works.

  大部分研究生希望进入一个令人满意的,这个学校不但有激动人心的生活,还能使自己的学术能力得到提升。

  2. Some courts are beginning to side with defendants, especially in cases where a warning label probably wouldnt have changed anything.

  一些法庭开始支持被告方,尤其是在那些警告标签也无济于事的案件中。

  被动态译法

  1. Wood could be used to produce many kinds of furniture.

  木材可以用来制造各种家具。

  2. These computers emit a great deal of heat, so the data centers need to be well air-conditioned.

  这些电脑释放出大量的热,因此数据中心需要处于良好的温度状态。

  3. Darwin was convinced that the loss of these tastes was not only a loss of happiness, but might possibly be injurious to the intellect, and more probably to the moral character.

  达尔文相信,这些品味的失去不仅是快乐的丧失,还可能损害才智,更有可能造成道德品质的败坏。

  4. We are thus led to distinguish, within the broad educational process which we have been so far considering, a more formal kind of education.

  这因此使得我们能从迄今一直在考虑的广泛过程中,区分出一种更加正式的教育形式。

  5. The pattern was observed by political scientist Andrew Hacker in the late 1970s.

  该模式是政治科学家安德鲁哈克在20世纪70年代后期所观察到的。

  6. This year, it was proposed that system be changed.

  今年有人提议改变这一体制。

  7. A man arrives in heaven and is being shown around by St. Peter.

  一位男子来到天堂,有圣皮特带领他参观。

  8. Almost all our major problems involve human behavior, and they cannot be solved by physical and biological technology alone.

  我们几乎所有重大问题都牵涉到人类行为,仅通过物理学和生物学技术是难以解决的。

  9. Having endured a painful period of unsustainability in his own life made it clear to him that sustainability-oriented values must be expressed though everyday action and choice.

  在已经经历了一次痛苦的不可持续时期之后,他清楚地意识到,以可持续性为导向的价值观必须通过每日行动和抉择来得到表达。

  后置定语译法

  1. To deliver results to its users quickly, then, Google has to maintain vast data centers around the world, packed with powerful computers.

  那么,为了将结果快速传送给用户,谷歌就必须建立并维护遍布全球的大型数据中心,这些数据中心配备了功能强大的计算机。

  2. An invisible border divides those arguing for computers in the classroom on the behalf of students career prospects and those arguing for computers in the classroom for broader reasons of radical educational reform.

  对于计算机课堂教学,人们在观点上存在着一条无形的界线:有人认为应从学生的就业前景来考虑这一问题,而另一些人认为应从推行彻底的教育改革方面来更加全面地考虑计算机进入教室这一问题。

  长句的截断

  1. Lots of studies have found that well-educated people from developing countries are particularly likely to emigrate.

  大量研究发现,发展中国家中受过良好教育的人尤其可能选择移居他国。

  2. The substantial buying power of such an agency would strengthen the public prescription-drug insurance plans to negotiate the lowest possible purchase prices from drug companies.

  该机构实质性的购买力会巩固公共处方药保险计划,从而与药品公司谈判,以尽可能获得最低价格。

  3. The behavioral sciences have been slow to change partly because the explanatory items often seem to be directly observed and partly because other kinds of explanations have been hard to find.

  行为科学的改变很缓慢,这部分是由于解释性术语通常是直接观察到的,部分是由于很难发现其它形式的解释。

  4. A Google search can leak between 0.2 and 7.0 grams of CO2 depending on how many attempts are needed to get the right answer.

  在谷歌上进行一次搜索会释放出0.2到7克的二氧化碳,具体数值依赖于得到正确所需的搜索次数。

  5. Big retailers could profitably apply their scale, existing infrastructure and proven skills in the management of product ranges, logistics, and marketing intelligence.

  大型零售商在管理产品类别、物流、以及营销智能化方面,可以应用其规模、已有基础设施和历经考验的技能,这是有利可图的。

  6. His work shows, probably better than that of any other anthropologist, the potential of cultural criticism inherent in the discipline.

  他的工作展示了该学科中固有的文化批判的潜力,这一工作可能优于任何其他人类学家。

  7. The southern states would not have signed the Constitution without protections for the peculiar institution.

  如果不保护南方各州的制度,他们当时就不会签署宪法。

  增词、减词与换词

  1. As a biographer knows, a persons early life and its condition are often the greatest gift to an individual.

  正如传记作家所知的那样,一个人的早期生活及环境通常是他一生中最大的礼物。

  2. Both previous shocks resulted in double-digit inflation and global economic decline.

  过去的两次危机均导致两位数通货膨胀和全球经济衰退。

  3. When people in developing countries worry about migration, they are usually concerned at the prospect of their best and brightest departure to Silicon Valley or to hospitals and universities in the developed world.

  当发展中国家的人们为移民问题感到担忧时,他们通过关心的是,如果千万发达国家的硅谷、医院、或是大学去工作,是否会给他们带来最光明的前途。

  4. The world is going through the biggest wave of mergers and acquisitions ever witnessed.

  我们的世界正在经历有史以来最大的一波兼并和收购浪潮。

  5. Newspapers are becoming more balanced businesses, with a healthier mix of revenues from readers and advertisers.

  报纸越来越成为收支平衡的生意,来自于读者和广告商的收益比例协调。

  6. He is publishing a paper which not only suggests that one group of humanity is more intelligent than the others, but explains the process that has brought this about.

  他的正在发表的一篇不仅暗示出某个人类群体会比其他群体更聪明,还解释了这种现象产生的过程。

  7. In physics, one approach takes this impulse for unification to its extreme.

  在物理学中,有一种方法将这一寻求一致性的冲动发挥到极致。

  8. If a farmer wishes to succeed, he must try to keep a wide gap between his consumption and his production.

  农业生产者想要成功,就必须尽量多生产而少消费。

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